The paperback edition of my Networks of Innovation
is now available, published
3 February 2006 by the Oxford University Press.
couple of papers and presentations, and some other stuff...
(For Finnish readers.
These were published in Tekniikka & Talous.)
Luultavasti ette tule kohtaamaan mademoiselle
Gosselinia. Hän on kuollut ja hänen nimensä on kadonnut
tietosanakirjoista ja sivistyneistön muistista. Hän oli ensimmäinen
Tieto vähentää tuskaa
Tänään kannatan EY-jäsenyyttä. Meille on
kerrottu, että suomalaiset ovat aina pärjänneet parhaiten vaikeina
aikoina. Niitä on odotettavissa, kun Suomi liittyy EY:hyn....
more stories 1991-94...
Mikäli koululaisille ja opiskelijoille
laskettaisiin työajalta palkkaa, Suomen bruttokansantuote kasvaisi
noin 300 000 työläisen vuosityöpalkalla. Hyvinkoulutettu kansalainen
Helvetin kattila on paikka, jonne lukemattomat
suomalaiset ovat vuosien saatossa joutuneet. Tie käy uskon kautta.
"Tahdon olla huono ja mitätön omissa silmissäni, sanokoot siit...
more stories 1995-99...
Internetin pitkä aalto
Maailmanhistorian suurista kaarista on
kirjoitettu monta ihmeellistä tarinaa, mutta vain muutama klassikko.
Yksi, ja ajankohtainen, on Carlota Perezin puolitoista vuosikymmentä
“Muutama päivä sitten olin menossa tapaamaan
ystävääni sairaalaan. Samaan hissiin tuli joku, ja tuli puheeksi, että
olen käynnistämässä firmaa internet-musiikin jakeluu...
more stories 2000-04...
Euroopan komiteat ovat joskus vähän jähmeitä.
Niiden visiot kääntyvät ajassa taaksepäin, katsomaan menneitä
kulta-aikoja. Tulevaisuuden toivekuvat hahmottuvat vanhojen men...
Tietoyhteiskunnassa tuottavuus laskee.
Tietoyhteiskunnassa yhä useammat ihmiset tekevät luovaa työtä ja
palveluja. Niiden tuottavuus mitataan nykyisin työn tekemiseen
more stories 2005-6...
30 September 2010
Foresight-Aware Strategic Management
How should universities do strategic management,
taking into account the profound changes now shaping the context of
higher education? This will be published in The FOR-UNI
Blueprint: A Blueprint for Organizing Foresight in Universities.
Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, pp. 47-64.
9 September 2010 Cooperation and Control in Innovation Networks
Slides from my presentation at NetEffect workshop
on innovation networks. In the multifocal downstream model,
intercommunity interaction becomes a critical enabler and constraint
for innovation. The presentation discusses the different interaction
mechanisms and the different types of innovation ecosystem dynamics
21 May 2010 Interaction Structures Across Communities of
Slides from my presentation at FuMee 3 workshop,
Paris, 21 May 2010. FuMee
focuses on theoretical issues related to anticipatory systems, and is
generally aimed at developing concepts and frameworks that help us to
understand what is the future and how it plays a role in what happens.
31 March 2010 Mitä
opimme Tekesin skenaarioista?
What did we learn from the Tekes Scenarios?
This is a summary of some ideas generated during our Scenario project
done for the Finnish Technology Agency (Tekes), distributed at the
joint management board meeting of Tekes and the Finnish Innovation
Fund (Sitra). In Finnish...
22 January 2010 Introduction
to Tekes Scenarios
Slides from my presentation at the Finnish
Technology Agency (Tekes) Leadership Forum. The presentation gives
some background on scenario work that I did for Tekes with Risto
Linturi, Mika Mannermaa, Riel Miller, and Teppo Turkki.
9 July 2009 Corporate
Knowledge: Part IV
This is Part IV of my out-of-print 1999 book: Corporate
Knowledge: Theory and Practice of Intelligent Organizations
The link to the table of contents is at the end of this page. I put
the text here as people now and then ask how they could access the
book. This section includes, for example, my 1998 analysis of Nonaka's
knowledge creation model. Nonaka's thinking has considerably evolved
since then, and my own analysis would also look somewhat different
today. The section also introduces my 5-A knowledge creation model.
References for the book are here.
15 June 2009 Managing
Boundaries in the Multifocal Innovation Model
This is a short article that presents four
alternative ways to manage boundaries between different local meaning
systems: 1) transactions, 2) boundary objects, 3) dialogue, and 4)
political processes. I had to write the paper under extraordinary
unrealistic super-tight schedule, but it has a relatively decent intro
and the main argument should be visible already here.
23 April 2009 Theories
of Open Innovation
Slides from my presentation at the Gothenburg
IT-University. This is a 3-hour 70 slide presentation that both
introduces the mainstream theories of von Hippel and Chesbrough and
discusses in more detail the foundations of some alternative theories
(Nonaka et al. and my own multifocal model).
25 November 2008 Intellectual
Property Processing After the End of Semiconductor Scaling
Slides from my presentation at the 'Visions of
Future Computing and Communications Paradigms' session at ICT 2008, 25
November, Lyon. The argument was that in the next couple of years we
are about to see a major technology disruption that will create a
radically new landscape for ICTs and the Information and Knowledge
Society. The new paradigm will be based on low-cost computing and
reusable semiconductor intellectual property (IP) blocks that provide
configurability and flexible allocation of processing between hardware
2 October 2008 When
Innovation Is Hard: Does the Open Source Model Work in Hardware?
Slides from a presentation that I gave at the
'Digital Challenges in Innovation Research' workshop at Temple
University 26 September 2008, Philadelphia, and at Stanford, 2
October. The slides are from the full version, as presented at
Stanford. The study is based on analysis of a few thousand open source
projects at SourceForge and about three hundred projects at
OpenCores.org, which hosts logic designs for semiconductor virtual
components, also known as IP cores.
September 2008 Finns in the EU 6th Framework Programme
Evaluation report for Tekes on the Finnish
participation and networks in the EU 6th Framework Programme for
Research. The work was done in a consortium where I wrote the
ICT-related parts and the case on ARTEMIS.
March 2008 An
interactive ARTEMIS timeline
I'm currently doing research on the future of
embedded systems, semiconductor intellectual property cores, and the
ARTEMIS Joint Technology Initiative. Here is a link to a
work-in-progress interactive timeline of the development of ARTEMIS:
6 November 2007 Mistä
puhumme kun puhumme tiedosta
(What do we talk about, when we talk about
knowledge) Slides from my presentation at Dipoli course on
Information Design. The presentation discussed the historical
evolution of the knowledge society, the emerging business models, and
the meaning-based view on knowledge and information. Most of the text
slides are in Finnish...
16 October 2007 Skills
and Learning for the Knowledge Society
Slides from my presentation at the EU eLearning
2007 Conference, Lisbon.
Does the concept of skills make sense in the world of future? Where
did it come from? Do we need a more human-centric model for learning,
where competences are socially and socio-technically distributed?
February 2007 Learning in the Age of Networked Intelligence
The article presents ten
theoretically substantiated “theses” on future education and learning,
highlighting emerging trends that will shape educational systems. The
focus is on the impact of innovation economy and knowledge society on
learning. Specifically, the article elaborates the changing dynamics
of production models since the first industrial revolution, arguing
that in the last few years we have been in the midst of a
globalization process that is qualitatively different from the earlier
ones. This new model has consequences, for example, for skill demands
and their regional distribution. More fundamentally, this “third
globalisation” makes innovation the key source of economic value,
pushing educational systems from adaptive towards creative learning
In implementing such creative pedagogies, traditional models of
innovation become inadequate. The paper therefore describes recent
developments in innovation research, and outlines a new theoretical
view on innovation, which connects innovation with social change and
learning. This “downstream” innovation model highlights the active and
creative role of user communities in making innovations real. As the
economic and social importance of “downstream” innovation is becoming
increasingly visible, educational institutions and learning activity
will change. Policymakers will have to answer the question: Why do we
need education in the future?
Working draft, the final version appeared in European
Journal of Education, 42(2) pp.235-254, June 2007
30 January 2007 Networks
Presentation slides from my keynote at SummIT'07,
Odense, Denmark. There will also be some video material available from
conference web site
later. The conference was organized by the
Knowledge Lab. Most of the presentations on the conference site are in
15 October 2006 Open Educational Resources: What are they and why do
A report written for the OECD Centre for
Educational Research and Innovation.
"This report describes ongoing initiatives and underlying concepts
in the area of open educational resources (OER). The aim of the
report is to elaborate the concept of open educational resources,
and provide a practically useful and theoretically solid definition
of open educational resources." The link is to the the final
I think the main contribution is on pp. 30-36.
Three interrelated concepts need to be defined: one for learning (I
use a pedagogic view that combines individual and social development),
one for openness (I distinguish three levels), and one for resource
(for the OER definition I distinguish traditional goods, common pools,
and non-rival fountains of goods). In practice, there are many valid
and coherent ways of using the term openness in the OER context.
Openness at "level 3" is perhaps most interesting, as it assumes
The final OECD summary report (Giving Knowledge
for Free, OECD 2007) skipped my argument about a Mertonian process for
defining such collective contributions, probably because its relevance
was not very clearly argued. Social evaluation of contributions is
necessary, however. This is because, in my view, knowledge exists only
as a social phenomenon. "Contribution" can only be distinguished from
a "non-contribution" using social quality criteria implemented in a
social process. I use the Mertonian approach to put a social theory of
knowledge back into the theory of development and learning, without
making extra assumptions about the "truthfullness," "empirical
validity" etc., of the contributions. Knowledge, therefore, can be
local to a specific culture and social practice, historical, and
context dependent, but only if it is validated using the internal
criteria available in the social practice in question. That’s how
Wikipedia, for example, can distinguish spam and forgeries from real
12 October 2006 Mistä
puhumme kun puhumme tiedosta
(What do we talk about, when we talk about
knowledge) Slides from my presentation at Dipoli course on
Information Design. Most of the text slides are in Finnish...
10 October 2006 (2 Sep.
05) Meaning Processing as the New Information Society
This is a paper written for the EU Joint Research
Centre, IPTS, FISTERA project. The full FISTERA (Foresight on
Information Society Technologies in the European Research Area) report
Future of Information Society in Europe"
is now available
through the JRC-IPTS site. The full report includes also contributions
from Emilio Fontela, Jeremy Millard, Carlota Pérez, Luc Soete, Erik
Reinert, and John Zysman and Tobias Schulze-Cleven.
10 October 2006 Tietotieteen
(The decade(s) of Knowledge Science)
Slides from a keynote at the Finnish annual Knowledge Forum. The
presentation discussed the past 14 years of knowledge management,
tried to summarize what are the new things we have learned, and
described some potential future developments. Most of the content is
12 September 2006
Tietoyhteiskunta tilastojen varjossa
(Knowledge society in the shadow of
statistics.) Slides from my presentation at Statistics Finland
discussion group on measuring the Information Society. Some slides in
20 May 2006 Recommendations
to cope with Digital Divide
Summary report written for Hitachi Science and
Technology Forum, where I moderated a discussion group on Security,
Safety, and Digital Divide. This will be published in a slightly
shorter version on the Hitachi Science and Technology Forum site in
the near future.
4 April 2006 Tiedon
käsite ja käytäntö
(The concept and practice of knowledge)
Slides from a presentation at the Knowledge
Management course at Dipoli, Espoo. Two-thirds in Finnish...
October 2005What did we learn from open source?
First Monday 10(10), Special Issue on Open Source
First Monday asked for a short comment for their
special issue on open source. "What, then, would be the most important
thing we learned, with the most fundamental impact and consequences in
the coming years? Most probably, it is the fact that we need to
redesign intellectual property rights."
6-7 October 2005 The
Great Transformation: Lisbon and Beyond
Keynote at "Lithuanian Knowledge towards Global
Competitiveness: Lisbon Strategy Relaunched." Vilnius, The link is to
the conference program page, where you can find a link to the
7-10 Sept 2005 Surfing the Waves of Socio-Economic Development
Slides from my presentation at the XV Economic
Forum. Behind the link, you'll find also the other presentations in
the session. The discussion was about the long-wave interpretation of
economic development, driven by key technologies. The focus was on
Perez's interpretation of the Schumpeterian model and its implications
for the development of the Knowledge Society in the new EU member
states. Krynica, Poland.
Broadband in South Korea.
Report prepared for the BREAD "Broadband for All"
coordination action. Describes the history and diffusion of broadband
in South Korea.
11 March 2005Elements
Of Great Transformation
Slides from the kick-off presentation at the
High-Level Group on Foresight on Information Society Technologies in
the European Research Area (FISTERA) workshop. Asks what new can we
say about information society, innovation, globalisation, learning,
work and productivity.
14 December 2004Innovation, Growth and Competitiveness in the
Presented at Foro de la Innovación y
Modernización en Andalucía Málaga, 14 December 2004. The paper
complements existing analyses on achieving the Lisbon goals of growth
and competitiveness in Europe, and discusses emerging new approaches.
8 December 2004The
Korean Broadband Miracle
A presentation on the development of broadband in
the Republic of Korea, given in the BroadBand Europe conference, 8
December 2004, Brugge. The conference was organised by the BREAD
Broadband for All coordination action.
in a TeamRoom: An Exploratory Study on Collective Concept Formation in
In the mid-1990s I was developing new methods and
tools for distributed knowledge creation and organizational knowledge
management. One of the ideas was to merge research on communities of
practice and sociocultural theories of learning. My team worked in
this area with several leading researchers, including people who were
designing new collaboration tools at the Lotus Institute (now IBM).
The linked paper was written in 1997. It makes some points that are
relevant for the developers of the semantic net, knowledge ontologies,
and communities of practice.
November 2004 The Ethics
Appears in November 2004 in Framework
as an opening essay on innovation, ethics and social space. "Framework
is a discursive forum that opens a space for a variety of visual
material, as well as extensive articles, analyses and international
28 July 2004Knowledge
Sharing and the Idea of Public Domain
Paper presented at the Unesco 21st Century Dialog
on "Building Knowledge Societies," Seoul, 28 July 2004. A conference
organized in the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Korean
National Commission for UNESCO and the visit of the Director-General
of UNESCO to the Republic of Korea. Talks about the historical roots
of intellectual property rights and their impact on innovation and
social development. The
complement the text by including material on
the social foundations of knowledge, links to social learning
June 2004 Realising the productivity potential of ICTs
Published in the IPTS Report special issue, June
2004. A concise summary of the main limitations of current methods to
analyze the productivity impact of ICTs, written for a policy-oriented
general audience. Shows that the observed ICT productivity impact has
to a large extent been created by hedonic price indices that have
substantially increased the value and growth rate of computer asset
estimates that are used in productivity calculations.
of the Linux Credits File: Methodological Challenges and Reference
Data for Open Source Research.
"...presents time-series data that can be
extracted from the Linux Credits files and discusses methodological
challenges of automatic extraction of research data from open source
files. The extracted data is used to describe the geographical
expansion of the core Linux developer community." First
Monday, June 2004
The paper also comments a recent Alexis de
Tocqueville Institution report that used the working paper version of
this article to argue that Linus Torvalds probably was not the
inventor of Linux. The Tocqueville report also borrowed my Networks
of Innovation, where I studied the history of the World Wide
Web, packet switching technology, Linux, etc., and where I pointed out
that the conventional inventor model does not work too well for
networked and systemic innovations. In fact, contrary to the
conclusions made by the Tocqueville authors, I argued that this is one
reason why we should rethink the patent system. Historically, it is
more accurate to say that Berners-Lee didn't invent the Web (quite
accurate) than to argue that Linus didn't create Linux (quite
inaccurate). The point, however, is that a careful analysis shows that
we need to revise both the concept of inventor and innovation to
address software and Internet related innovations.
10 May 2004Social Capital: Setting the
Slides from the presentation at the High Level
Group on the Employment and Social Dimension of the Information
Society (ESDIS), Brussels, 10 May 2004.
February 2004Broadband in Finland
A report on the status of the Finnish broadband,
up to February 2004. This was prepared for the BREAD
Data is More than Knowledge
From the editorial
: The final paper in the Special
Section, "Data Is More Than Knowledge: Implications of the Reversed
Knowledge Hierarchy for Knowledge Management and Organizational
Memory," by Ilkka Tuomi, is one of the most provocative we have seen
in years. In a very readable and convincing argument, the author
challenges one of the pillars of our discipline ...Perhaps, as Tuomi
asserts, people do first perceive the world as knowledge, then
codify and formalize that knowledge, and then with more effort parse
it into data structures that exactly define its meaning. Only then,
he asserts, can it be manipulated by computers. ...You may agree or
disagree with the author, but either way you will find his paper
highly engaging. We find that it has already broadened the way we
think about issues ranging from systems analysis to Third Normal
of Management Information Systems Vol 16 No. 3, pp. 103-118
September 2003 Response to Kurzweil
In Exponential Growth an Illusion?: Response
to Ilkka Tuomi, Ray Kurzweil comments two of my papers that
discuss the development of semiconductor and computing technology.
Kurzweil used his response in his Accelerating Change Conference
plenary keynote 14 September 2003, where we also had a debate on
Kurzweil’s hypothesis. The first paper was my First Monday article on
Moore’s Law and the latter paper was written as a background paper for
the conference (see below). Kurzweil’s comments now give me an
opportunity to clarify some apparently confusing points.
12-14 September 2003Kurzweil, Moore, and
This is a working paper that discusses Ray
Kurzweil's hypothesis of accelerating rate of technical progress in
computing. The paper is based on a set of unpublished papers that
cover Kurzweil's argument more broadly, including the claim that
technological development can be understood as an evolutionary
process. The linked paper focuses on semiconductors and semiconductor
industry, but also makes some comments on generic claims of
technological change. It provides some starting points for my comments
at the Accelerating Change Conference, Stanford, September 12-14,
3-5 September 2003Beyond User-Centric
Models of Product Creation
Paper presented at the COST 269 Conference: "The
Good, The Bad, and The Irrelevant," Helsinki 3-5 September 2003. It
proposes that we should take social practice as the focus of design of
functional (i.e. technological) products. This requires that we build
social learning models into design processes.
20 February 2003Innovation in the Network
Slides from my presentation at the European
Commission, DG Information Society, Brussels, 20 February 2003. The
presentation focused on the open source innovation model and discussed
the extensibility of this model, as well some potential policy
November, 2002The Lives and Death Of
Studies the history of Moore's Law and looks for
evidence for its various versions. "Semiconductor technology has
during the last four decades evolved under very special economic
conditions. Contrary to common and widely spread claims, Moore's Law
actually never was valid and it has not been driving developments in
the semiconductor industry or information technology." First
Monday, November, 2002
Blog and the Public Sphere
Wonder what the title means? This was a
presentation that I gave at the final seminar of the Academy of
Finland Media Culture research program, May 31, 2002.
June 2002Working in the
This was a presentation given at the Helsinki
University of Art and Design, for the joint conference of the Humantec
and IDIA thematic networks. The presentation starts from a macro-level
question: why ICT doesn't seem to appear in economic statistics? It
makes a brief "ethnographic" study of Microsoft images that illustrate
knowledge work, discovering the most important tool for knowledge
work, the social and cognitive coffee cup. I refined some of these
ideas also for a presentation at the UC Berkeley Institute for Design
/ Human-Centric Computing retreat, Lake Tahoe, June 2002.
Periphery to Center: Emerging Research Topics on Knowledge Society
A study where I tried to find information society
research topics that today seem peripheral but which could become
central in the next five years. This was done as background work for
the Finland-Berkeley Information Technology and Society research
program. The report is available in paper format from Tekes
the Finnish Technology Agency. Parts of the report are currently being
translated to German and will appear in 2002.
July 2000Beyond the Digital Divide
An informal and somewhat provocative discussion
paper on Digital Divide. I presented it at the UC Berkeley
Human-Centric Computing retreat, July 2000. The paper seems to be
getting relevant again. It starts with the line: "If we study
available evidence, the digital divide is closing rapidly." The main
point is that we need to move beyond a simplistic technology-focused
view on DD. Instead, we need to address access to meaningful social
interaction, access to economically useful resources, and access to
individual development. I'm currently planning to write a revised
version of this paper where I try to show how, exactly, technology is
relevant. Indeed, it has a lot of relevance, but this has little to do
with access to PCs or the net. More on that later...
networks as measurement type computers: Some theoretical reasons for
non-algorithmic information processing
Inspired by Stephen Wolfram's recent book (see
Man Who Cracked the Code to Everything
) I dug into the depths of
my hard disk and recovered an old paper, from 1988. It shows why
Wolfram's project can never succeed. The paper argues that only few
special types of problems can be solved by algorithmic computer
programs and that most natural phenomena fall beyond this class of
problems. The paper also describes the starting problem of Turing
machines which makes it, in general, impossible to start the
computation if the result of the computation needs to have some useful
accuracy. The problem with the Wolfram universe, therefore, is not
only how to program it, but also how to describe the data it is
supposed to operate on. A few comments on Wolfram and the history of
the paper are available here
book was Corporate Knowledge: Theory and Practice of Intelligent
, Metaxis, 1999.
Abstract, TOC, and Intro
available here. There is also a wikipedia
, written by someone who seems to understand what he/she is
Some people ask how to get hold of the book. I was planning to rewrite
it for an international publisher, so the distribution was only through
the Academic Bookstore
Helsinki. The book is now out of print but available through some
libraries (ISBN 951-98280-0-1; 453 pages)
last updated: September 2010
(and written in HTML, for
fun... Ain't it retro...)